Scale of the universe – Our TINY UNIVERSE in NUMBERS (Part 1)

Scale of the universe – Our TINY UNIVERSE in NUMBERS (Part 1)

This video is a 2 part collaboration with
fellow YouTuber Arvin Ash. Together we are going to discuss the scale
of the universe in numbers, with some pretty mind blowing facts and figures. So make sure you check out Arvins video and
incredible channel after this video! The universe is magical and mysterious, and
humans are ever looking to understand how it works and what makes it tick. One way our brains make sense of things is
with maths, statistics and numbers, helping give us perspective on all we know, from the
tiniest specs of matter to the gargantuan scale of space and all the wonders it holds. Today we are going to take you on an adventure
in numbers, showing you some of the most important numbers in science, starting small and intricate,
working our way up to dizzy awe inspiring numbers. Lets go. So there is only one place to start and that
is zero. Zero (number) – Total energy in the universe
(positive negative balance)…. Matter, antimatter and light are all classed
as positive energy, so you would think that with so much light and even explosions from
all the stars in the universe, energy would be positive in balance. But as the gravitational energy between atoms
and objects are classed as negative this actually cancels out the positive energy. Stepehen Hawking explained it like this – “ “Two
pieces of matter that are close to each other have less positive energy than the same two
pieces a long way apart, because you have to expend energy to separate them against
the gravitational force that is pulling them together,”
Since it takes positive energy to separate the two pieces of matter, gravity must be
using negative energy to pull them together. Thus, the gravitational field has negative
energy. In the case of a universe that is approximately
uniform in space, one can show that this negative gravitational energy exactly cancels the positive
energy represented by the matter. So the total energy of the universe is zero”
Let’s not waste any energy wrecking our heads over this…. 0.0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000054
(Seconds) – Planck TIme – This is regarded as the smallest unit of time that has any
meaning. It is the time a photon travelling at the
speed of light would take to travel a Planck length, the smallest measure of distance we
have, which is thought to make up the quantum foam on which space time is built. It is 20 powers of 10 smaller than the diameter
of a hydrogen nucleus. The laws of physics state that the universe
could only be classed as existing after it lived for this amount of time. Oh and a fun fact. There are more units of planck time in one
second thanv 1 (number) – Hydrogen – Number 1 of the periodic
table, with one electron orbiting one proton, hydrogen is the most abundant element in the
universe and probably the first that ever existed. 4 (number) number of fundamental forces – We
are not forcing you to watch this video but let’s explain the hidden forces that make
it possible for you to do so. First we have gravity, which acts as an attractive
force between any two masses, and is trying to pull you and your atoms into the centre
of the Earth, right now, naughty gravity. Now the reason we don’t is the second force,
electromagnetism, which can interact with any atoms and molecules with an electrical
charge, through repulsion and attraction, together. Keeping you as one piece and the floor as
one piece. I like this guy. The third is the ‘weak nuclear force’
which is responsible for nuclear beta decay.This is when a neutron within the nucleus changes
into a proton and an electron, which is then ejected from the nucleus. This force ultimately enables the existence
of stars and our sun. The fourth is the ‘strong nuclear force’
which binds the nuclei of atoms together. The force is strong enough to keep two protons
that normally repel each other together making it the strongest of the four forces. Without these forces we would not exist and
all matter would float away from each other. 5 (%) – Percent of our visible universe – This
amazingly is the small percentage of mass of the universe all around us we have been
able to observe and quantify. The remainder is still all around us but so
far remains invisible, around 25% being dark matter and 70% known as dark energy. 11 – (Number) Dimensions theorised by string
theory – This is the amount of dimensions proposed in the universe when unifying the
relationships of the 5 prominent string theories, known as M-theory or membrane theory. String theory replaces all the matter and
forces in the universe with tiny vibrating strings that twist and turn in ways to make
up every single particle. And all the different types of particles in
the universe will have a different note that distinguishes it and forming the cosmic symphony
we are a part of. The 1st dimension is like a line of two connecting
points, with width the only measurement to exist
The 2nd dimension adds height and any basic flat shape you can image can exist here. The 3rd dimension is where we exist and adds
depth to the equation, but time does not exist here. That is added in the 4th dimension. Time gives any object existing in 3 dimensions
a location where it can exist in the universe. Now begins the higher dimensions which are
theorised to exist but are imperceptible to us as they are believed to exist on a subatomic
level. We won’t explain them all as your head might
explode But the 7th dimension enables multiple universes,
all with their own beginnings and own individual laws of nature that make them up. The 8th holds every single possible outcome
of past and present for all the universes in the 7th dimension
The 11th dimension is thought to be the maximum because of self consistency, any more and
they would become unstable and collapse back down to the maximum of 11 anyway. In the 11th dimension, anything and everything
is possible. All pasts, futures, beginnings and ends are
laid bare and you would be able to manipulate or change any part of this you desire. And to think this is theorised to exist and
be all around us right now but be totally inaccessible to us, science is mad. 42- The number that is the true meaning of
Life! Ok only joking here, this was the number that
supercomputer ‘deep thought’ came up after millions of years of processing in ‘the
Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy’. Who knows maybe deep thought knows something
we dont? 98 (%) – The abundance of hydrogen and helium
– The abundance of hydrogen and helium in the universe account for 98% of all normal
matter. 74% is hydrogen and 24% helium. Every other element in the universe, oxygen,
carbon, iron and all the others only add up to under 2%. 118 – (number) elements in the periodic table
– The number of elements in the universe we have discovered weighs in at 118. Everything around you right now is made up
of a combination of these elements. 94 of the elements have been found to naturally
occur on Earth. The remaining 24 have yet to be found on Earth
or in space naturally, and have been created artificially. The numbers generally increase with atomic
mass. Anything over 100 in the table is so unstable
when created it usually only lasts for a few milliseconds before decaying into lighter
elements. 380 (Number) Wavelength in nanometres of the
colour violet, the shortest colour wavelength the human eye can see in the visible light
spectrum. Any lower and it is not visible to us. 500 – (Number) time in seconds light takes
to hit us from the sun – Light emitting from the sun travels at 186,282 miles per second. The light we are seeing from the sun has taken
8.2 minutes to reach us or 500 seconds. 700 (Number) Wavelength in nanometres of the
colour red – on the high end of the visible light spectrum is the colour red, its wavelength
being 700 nanometres a second. anything higher is classed as infrared. Now over to Arvins Channel, where we will
discuss the scale of the universe all the way up to infinity… and beyond. Ok maybe just infinity. Click the link on screen here or find it in
the description below.

18 Replies to “Scale of the universe – Our TINY UNIVERSE in NUMBERS (Part 1)

  1. Awesome animations Chris! Was a pleasure collaborating with you. Your animations on our "infinite universe" video are amazing! Hope to work more with you in the future.

  2. 2 Questions!
    1 – What would you change if you found yourself in the 11th dimension? (a certain US president maybe?)
    2 – We used binaural music for this video, if you listened on your headphones did you feel super focused?

    Binaural beats are meant to help your brain focus so we did an experiment (sorry, not sorry).

  3. This is the same narrator from kurzsegast.
    I believe Isac Arthur, Alvin Ash , Seeker, Vsauce, PBS Spacetime, Michael Godier, Frasier Cain, answers with Joe's show are all linked, or at least, have the same audience. That could just be from listing these channels on each of their channnels list. In any case, good stuff guys. I can never get enough science programs

  4. This is me 15mins ago: "How did I never hear of this channel before? With this level of content it must atleast have 800k subscribers! Let's see how many he has… 11? 11 what? Maybe they mean a million and put the point there by mistake? But there's a 'K' at the end…. that's surely a mistake! How the …..? Just 11 thousand what?????"

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