How Will The Universe End?

How Will The Universe End?

How Will the Universe End?
I’m Fraser Cain, the publisher of Universe Today. The evidence that the Universe began with
the Big Bang is very compelling. 13.8 billion years ago, the entire Universe was compressed
into a microscopic singularity that grew exponentially into the vast cosmos we see today. But what does the future hold? How will the
Universe end? Astronomers have been pondering the ultimate
fate of the Universe for thousands of years. In the last century, cosmologists considered
three outcomes for the end of everything, and it all depended on the critical density
of the Universe. If this critical density was high, then there
was enough mutual gravity to slow and eventually halt the expansion. Billions of years in the future, it would
then collapse in on itself again, perhaps creating another Big Bang. This is known as
a closed Universe, and the final result is the Big Crunch. If the critical density was low, then there
wouldn’t be enough gravity to hold things together. Expansion would continue on forever and ever. Stars would die, galaxies would be spread
apart, and everything would cool down to the background temperature of the Universe. This is an open Universe, and the end is known
as the Big Freeze. And if the critical density was just right,
the Universe’s expansion goes on forever, but it’s always slowing down, reaching a dead
stop in an infinite amount of time. This creates a Flat Universe… also a Big
Freeze. Fortunately, astronomers were able to measure
the critical density of the Universe, using NASA’s WMAP spacecraft, and they discovered
that the actual density of the Universe predicts a flat Universe. So that’s it, right? Of the three choices, the answer is #3. Unfortunately, nature had other plans, and
came up with a reality that nobody expected. In 1998, a team of astronomers were observing
distant supernovae to get a sense of how fast the Universe is slowing down and they made
an amazing discovery. Instead of decelerating, as predicted by the
critical density of the Universe, the expansion of the Universe is actually speeding up. Some mysterious force is pushing galaxies
faster and faster away from each other, accelerating the expansion of the Universe. We now call this force “dark energy”, and
for the time being, astronomers have no idea what it is. All we know is that it’s pushing the Universe
apart. Distant galaxies are being accelerated away
from us, and in trillions of years from now, they will cross the beyond the cosmic horizon
and disappear from view. The evidence that we live in a vast Universe
will disappear with them. But there’s a further unsettling possibility
about dark energy. Maybe the expansion pressure will increase, eventually overwhelming gravity
on a local level. Galaxies will get torn apart, and then Solar Systems, and eventually atoms
themselves will be shredded by the increasing dark energy – this idea is known as the Big
Rip. So how will the Universe end? The force of dark energy will continue to
accelerate the expansion of the Universe until distant galaxies disappear. Galaxies will use up all the gas and dust
for stars and go dark, perhaps becoming black holes. Those black holes will decay and maybe
matter itself will decay into pure energy. The entire Universe will become a cold, quiet
place, where single photons are stretched across light years of space. Don’t worry, though, that won’t be for quadrillions
of years from now. Thanks for watching.

89 Replies to “How Will The Universe End?

  1. If Dark Energy is causing the ever increasing expansion of the Universe now, is it also the force responsible for causing the "Inflation" at the very beginning of the Universe? If it is, why did it ease off after the initial inflation and why has it started up again in more recent cosmological time?

  2. Would like to quote Brain Cox – "It's 10,000 trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion years.. How big is that number?! If I were to start counting with a single atom representing on year, then there wouldn't be enough atoms in the ENTIRE UNIVERSE to get anywhere near that number!!"

  3. It seems, however, that not all galaxies are flying apart. e.g. Andromeda and the Milky Way are headed for a future collision as you know — is it more appropriate to say that galactic clusters are flying apart but within those clusters gravity is operating to, essentially, coalesce them down to, perhaps, a very large galaxy? And what then is the fate of these huge galaxies? Do they each eventually disappear into one super super massive black hole? And its life cycle = ? Decay? A mini big bang?

  4. Right, there are galaxies moving together on a local level. When Andromeda and the Milky Way collide, they'll turn into an elliptical galaxy, like M32. Their supermassive black holes will possibly merge. The matter with either get sucked into the black hole, or fly out into space. The black holes will evaporate into energy, and the matter may decay as well.

    I'll do a video on this. 🙂

  5. Astronomers don't know. But it seems that dark energy is a constant pressure. It was the same in the past and it'll be the same in the future. So inflation is probably something else.

  6. We don't KNOW how the universe will end. Our understanding of how the universe works on a grand scale is still extremely young; including forces we can't yet explain.

  7. Slowly, inevitability the universe will become colder and darker, until the last star burns out and the universe will become dark once again. The age of stars will be over….

  8. Everytime I hear how will universe end, makes me sad, I'd rather a big Crucnh and just a restart to a new universe, a new world haha

  9. Is that the general consensus view that the universe will just keep expanding and die? That's depressing! I like the expands then contracts and starts over idea.

  10. Obviously, this is more philosophy than science, but I was wondering what you think – why is there something rather than nothing? All of it, space, time, matter, energy, and if there is one, a multiverse… why are they here, rather than there just not being anything?

    As always, I love these short videos. So much to think about.

  11. I accept what the evidence says dude. I just think the start over universe idea is much more emotionally comforting.

  12. Recommendation for avoiding a collision with Andromeda: everybody flap their arms in the same direction, for a period of at least 15 minutes. Three, Two, One…NOW!

  13. There's an amazing video from Lawrence Krauss called "A Universe From Nothing". Search for that. It'll give you some ideas.

  14. That's the heat death of the Universe. All matter will be energy, and the energy will be evenly distributed across vast distances of space. There'll be no way to extract energy for anything.

  15. I'll add that as a topic for the future. But just imagine a balloon expanding with a bunch of dots on it. The further away the dots are, they faster they move away as the balloon expands.

  16. But we can see what direction the evidence is leading us. And if overwhelming evidence gives us a new perspective, we can come up with a new theory.

  17. LOL In those 15 minutes, Andromeda will have moved about 172,000 miles closer. If you look at Andromeda in the night sky and recall that it is 2.54 million light years away, you can calculate how much closer it actually is now since the light you now see left Andromeda. That number is 1,524 x 10^13 miles closer. It reminds one of the warning you see in some car mirrors: objects may be closer than they appear.

  18. Thanks — it certainly would be interesting to understand the evolution and eventual fate of out gravitationally bound local group. Achieving that understanding might help us understand the bigger picture. Further, that explanation will be dependent, among other things, on what the life cycle of a black hole is — and whether black holes can merge.

  19. How do we know the universe started 13 something billion years ago if we can't even see beyond the observable universe? I still don't get this.

  20. The Universe is flat, but it's flat in 3 dimensions. What this means is that two parallel lines will remain parallel no matter how far you travel. Search for Zoggthealien to understand how this works.

  21. I think some studies proposed that the universe may be curved, but we do not notice because we are also curved in the same way.

  22. You should present in another video all that compelling evidence that shows that "the entire universe was" once "compressed into a" "singularity," and that that point was the beginning of the universe.

  23. Yup, we actually just recorded this. "What is the Evidence for the Big Bang?" I cover the 4 pillars of evidence that independently match the hypothesis that the Universe started from a single point.

  24. I like to go back and forth with the topics. Some which are more grounded and basic, and others which are more speculative. It keeps me entertained.

  25. Nope, Planck helped determine the age of the Universe to 13.82 and refined the estimates for the composition. We're 4.9% matter, 26.8% dark matter and 68.3% dark energy.

  26. However God decides he wants the universe to end.I dont want to start a argument cause i like your videos I am just saying my beliefs that God will decide the Ultimate Fate of Us and The Universe.But these videos are very educational and I enjoy them! 

  27. The theory of matter colliding with hot and cold would kill all bacteria, we need bacteria to grow therefore recreation is impossible.

  28. Thank you for this video which I linked on my website Islam and the Quran islamandthequran to explain science and to promote understanding and world peace between believers (Muslims, Christians and Jews) and non believers (Atheists) and those who do not know (Agnostics).

  29. Were do y'all think you'll go when u die? U need to seriously think about it. Death is not a funny joke. What will happen and were will u go when u die? Life is short Very short and eternity is long.

  30. @Fraser Cain , about the last part in the video… Brian Cox said that the Universe's death will come after an unimaginable number of years.. He said that if you count all the atoms in the observable Universe, that number wouldn't even be close to the years that the Universe will need to die (including Black holes). It was like trillion, trillion, trillion, trillion, trillion, trillion years from now.. What do you think?

  31. nope, it didn't come from so called singularity. It was already existing. Take note that singularity has limits and UNIVERSE HAS NO LIMIT.

  32. another way might be is the galaxy adramita's blackhole will combine with our blackhole and making a much bigger blackhole and be making a milkdamita that might be a thing

  33. so there is no point in expanding our race..through the galaxies or terraforming other planets…cause we will end up dying in the end no matter what we do…

  34. 👍👍👍👍👍👍cool well if the world end look at their brite side no school no more work and good will ad peace hurray ¿typo? fun run duuuuuuuuuuun

  35. right now im so afraid for the earth being black hole,you know as your family grow and have more members theyl reach the given time and,ITS JUST SO SCARY!

  36. thanks for the enlightenment I just have gotten answers of my several questions about the Universe.. Thank you !!

  37. Hmm, ok, but I think I read somewhere that our supercluster (along with many others) were getting pulled towards the Great Collector

  38. if this is true and this is infinite then why hasn't the end happened before now or in the future

  39. every thing in nature has opposite to it right ? then the dark energy which is accelerating the speed of expansion . then there may be another dark energy at the exterior of the universe. then it may be pushing the universe at the singularity

  40. I think it's a good thing the universe is constructed in such a way that there will most likely always be mysteries. It's never wrong to theorize, analyze, and learn. It IS wrong to ever think you have nothing more to learn. I pity anyone who does.

    "So honor the valiant who die 'neath your sword…
    But pity the warrior who slays all his foes."

  41. I think the oscillating universe theory seems right… Dark Energy is not infinite, our universe and it's acceleration will slow down eventually. Everything that goes up must come down; The universe, just like a lung, will inflate and collapse, just as all life and matter in our existence.

  42. You know nobody knows. That's it. Nobody knows and nobody will ever know the fate of our universe or all the answers we long & crave. Whatever is going to happen will and is going to happen. We need to accept it. So please enjoy your consciousness while you have it. For all we know its all we have ever.

  43. Then again the universe may never end.
    Recent studies suggest that the universe is endless and is not growing after all which downplays the theory of the big bang.

    If the universe does end though.
    It may sound dumb but my theory is that when you die,
    Your spirit will travel to a parallel universe that mirrors ours. When you have a dream, that may be your glimpse of the parallel.


  45. This guy is a fucking tart, actually most of the theorists that believe this are complete tarts.. They failed to see the expanse of space and time themselves… The universe came from the singular fact that all mathematics spawns from 0. Which is the absolute representation of nothing, aka Limbo. Limbo is a place without time, without time there is no energy, there is no space expanse, it just was. The problem with Nothing or Absolute 0 was that it was a mathematical fallacy that nothing could not be nothing, thus creating time and then motion, aka the expansion, this velocity of expanse would ultimate be uncontrollable and 100% unstable energy unable to balance itself, let's start by figuring out what happens from 0…From 0 or absolute nothing you get the prime numbers 1 2 3, Time/Space/Later Matter, yes two is a prime number and it only happens once in the sequence from 0-infinity, it also falls into the largest sum of prime numbers between 1- and infinity. ie. 1,2,3,5,7 after this you only get extremely rare quadradic primes. This is something that was believe Tesla knew about was Quadradic Primes and their influence within frequency. Giving us not only the first clues into the quadradic prime frequencies, and brought us mathematics like the Fibonacci Sequence, and much more. Since you will always be left with a corner no matter how many times you smash an atom together, spaces expanse is not only outwards but it is also inwards infinitely, everywhere all the time new points of existence in space are being generated. The external expanse is so extreme it's unthinkable the velocity at which time and space themselves travel, the human mind doesn't or cant normally accept this these levels of mathematics, because the numbers don't make sense, attempting to tackle this expanse of nothing is a limbo within itself. Giving an extreme probability that other points in the universe are being created at this very moment on this exact same plane of dimensions…… Stretching a heartbreaking distance so extreme…that well… one day, matter will start to balance out amongst the black coats of space. eventually leading to a grand tapestry that's left only to grow, where eventually even immortality would become boring. Signed ~BAE

  46. Here is the thing, how will the Universe end if dark matter will still exist expanding forever? If a form of matter exist that is exponentially accelerating The mass of the universe must be increasing….

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